The previous researches by Owen and Feinstein did not provide credible findings. In 2012, they did this study on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder affecting the journalists that were involved in covering the 11th September attack.

  • An issue identified in the article

In this article, Owen and Feinstein focus on the threat that Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder has on journalists. This disorder is common among journalists who cover grave matters like war, conflicts and crisis.

  • Source of the issue

Owen and Feinstein derive the issue in this article from the America’s 11th September attack. This was a terrorist attack executed using the hijacked United States Airliners’ planes. More than 3,000 people died and properties worth billions of dollars damaged.

  • Significance of the issue

The aim of this study was to shed light on the experiences of journalists in their daily work of trying to get first-hand information during conflicts and crisis. The study shows that the US government began incurring psychological expenses after the attack.  According to this study, more than 7.5% of Manhattan adults and more than 10.5% of the children’s population suffered Post-Traumatic Stress disorder.

The significance of this study was to discuss the issue of psychological effects that domestic journalists suffer when exposed to war, crisis, terror and other traumatic events.

  • Feasibility of the issue for the study

It was possible for this study to produce the intended results because data from previous materials on this issue was available. Having domestic and war journalists enabled the study to achieve its general aim of addressing psychological effects suffered by these journalists.

  • Scope of the literature review

The study includes the concept of psychological and terror effects on children and adults when faced with sudden challenges of crisis such as war. The article also uses the concept of domestic and war journalists to bring forth their roles.

Through literature review, the authors bring out the relationships between variables explicitly and how they relate to the theoretical framework.

  • Theoretical context of the issue

This study sets a theoretical framework under the psychopath concept that involves avoidance, re-experiencing and hyperarousal. Background information is used by the study to establish relationships of terror effects and individuals that are not used to traumatic effects.

  • Hypotheses/research questions

The focus of the authors in the study was to answer the question, what psychological effects do domestic journalists suffer since they are not experienced in handling harsh incidents such as terror and war.

  • Variables of interest

The variables of this study include different categories of journalists, professions and events.


The methodology in this article covers the following:

  • Research design description
  • Control of the extraneous variables
  • Assessing external and internal validity
  • How sample was gotten
  • Measurement instruments
  • Validity and reliability of the instruments
  • Sources of error in measurement
  • Ethical considerations

Data Analysis

This covers the following:

  1. Procedures of analyzing data
  2. Results presentation

Communicating Findings

This covers:

  1. Findings forums
  2. Limitations
  3. Implications for a practitioner
  4. Implications for the future studies